ABOUT THE TABLES

Please read this information carefully before using the tables

The nutritional information on all milk and dairy products covered in this publication have been taken from McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, Seventh summary edition.

(Finglas P.M. et al. (2015) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, Seventh summary edition. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.)

 

The tables featured in this publication have been divided into 5 sections:

Section 1 Milk

Section 2Yogurt and fromage frais

Section 3 Cheese

Section 4Cream

Section 5Dairy desserts

 

Nutrient composition values are given for:
Macronutrients: energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fibre
Water-soluble vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, niacin from tryptophan, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, pantothenate, biotin, vitamin C
Fat-soluble vitamins: retinol, carotene, vitamin D, vitamin E
Minerals: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, chloride, manganese, selenium, iodine

Energy conversion factors:
Protein 1g = 4 kcal or 17 kJ
Fat 1g = 9 kcal or 37 kJ
Carbohydrate 1g = 3.75 kcal or 16 kJ

The nutrient units used throughout the tables are as follows:
Gram (g)
Milligram (mg) – a thousandth of a gram
Microgram (μg) – a millionth of a gram
Kilocalorie (kcal) – a unit used to measure the energy value of a food
Kilojoule (kJ) – this unit is also used to measure the energy value of food (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ)

Symbols used in the tables:
N – values for this particular nutrient were not available
Tr – Trace amounts of this nutrient

Portion size and volume
All nutrient values in the subsequent tables are expressed per 100g of product and per average portion [taken from Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Food Portion Sizes, second edition, London: HMSO (1988), or from the leading brand sold in UK]. For example, the average portions of milk, cheese and yogurt are given as a 200ml glass, a 30g matchbox size piece and a 150g pot respectively.

For those products sold by volume such as milk and cream, nutrient values are given per 100mls, as well as per 100g. The specific gravities (densities) used to calculate the volume are as follows:

Whole milk
1.03
Semi-skimmed milk
1.03
Skimmed milk
1.04
Evaporated milk
1.07
Single cream
1.00
Whipping cream
0.96
Double cream
0.94
Ice cream: Dairy, vanilla
0.61
Ice cream: Non-dairy, vanilla
0.51

NB: Volume is calculated by dividing the weight (g) by the density (specific gravity) of the product

Bioavailability
With the exception of retinol and carotene, the figures shown do not take nutrient bioavailability (i.e. the proportion of a nutrient in food that the body can absorb and use) into account. Bioavailability can affect the absorption and utilisation of the following nutrients: iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, folate, niacin and vitamin B6. In general, the availability of most nutrients in milk and dairy products compares favourably with other foods.

Product variation
The nutrient values given are derived from analysis of a range of samples and brands taken throughout the year in order to account for seasonal variation and therefore represent ‘average’ values. A wide range of products are available on the market and each has a unique nutritional composition. If information on the nutrient composition of a specific product is required it is advisable to contact the manufacturer or supplier directly in order to obtain up-to-date accurate information.

Vitamin A – Retinol and Carotene
The two main components of vitamin A are retinol (or preformed vitamin A) and carotene (which can be broken down in the body to give retinol). The values for retinol and carotene should be added together to give a value for total vitamin A.

Niacin and Tryptophan
Niacin values are the sum of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which are collectively known as niacin. Tryptophan can be converted in the body to nicotinic acid. On average, 60mg tryptophan is equivalent to 1mg niacin. In order to estimate the niacin equivalent for the food it is necessary to add together the figures given for ‘niacin’ and ‘niacin from tryptophan’.

Other points to note

  • Separate values are given for saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat as well as total fat. The sum of these fatty acids is, however, lower than that for total fat because fat is not totally composed of fatty acids, it is also made up of glycerol.
  • Sodium is expressed in milligrams, values should therefore be divided by 1000 in order to convert them into grams.
  • All the product values are for pasteurised milk and dairy products.